Welcome to the Project64 Legacy User Manual.

New users are encouraged to read through this document (or as much of it as you can stomach) before using the program. Project64 is a complex piece of software trying very hard to look like a simple piece of software. Reading this file could save you time in the long run. It's probably a good idea to familiarise yourself with the known issues at the outset, so you aren't left wondering how to fix un-fixable things!

There are a few conditions attached to the use of this file (doesn't concern people who just read it!).

There is a glossary of terms and a search feature provided.

Hope you have as much fun using Project64 as we had making it :)

The glossary is divided alphabetically to speed searching.

Select the letter beginning the word or term you seek.

One of the N64 cartridge saves types. The most common save type, used in e.g. Mario64. Autodetected by Project64.

One of the N64 cartridge save types. Must be set in Project64 via ROM Settings.

3rd party plugin
term used to refer to any plugin written to a Project64 pugin specification but not written by the Project64 Authors.

abbreviation: 4 megabytes. Size of N64 RDRAM with no Expansion Pak installed.

abbreviation: 8 megabytes. Size of N64 RDRAM with Expansion Pak installed.

abbreviation: Audio Binary Interface,

abbreviation: Advanced Block Linking

Access Violation
a type of error that can occur during program execution, here most relevant to Project64 video plugin. Also known as a Fatal Exception.

Action Replay
'Action Replay' is the name of a hardware device sold in Europe as an N64 accessory, but the system has been adopted by N64 emulators for their cheat systems and is mostly code compatible, with some exceptions. Allows the creation and application of a wide variety of codes to produces effects in games that were not intended by the game developers.

abbreviation: "Also Known As" (slang)

abbreviation: Audio List

graphics term meaning roughly the same as "transparency"


abbreviation: Application

a piece of software, a computer program, code that can be run, binary, executable, in this case used to refer to the file Project64.exe.

Audio Binary Interface
See audio uCode. Term not usually used in reference to Project64 as it's only important in HLE audio emulation, Project64 has low level audio emulation.

Audio List(s)
raw audio generation data produced by N64 CPU and sent to RSP for processing (turning into a waveform you can hear), or in this case sent to either RSP plugin or audio plugin.

Audio uCode
Type of microcode used for sound generation. N64 games are programmed with audio libraries in a similar way as their graphics use graphics libraries. The term Audio uCode is not usually relevant to Project64 because it is not supplied with a HLE audio emulator.

N64 controller to PC USB port adapter made and sold online by company called Wistech. Very popular amoung N64 emulator authors and users.

Advanced Block Linking
feature of Project64 core used to improve performance, available as option via ROM settings

aspect ratio
the relative proportions of a display, width vs. height. 4:3 is standard TV and monitor aspect and hence resolution ratio with square pixels, for example 640/480 = 4/3

abbreviation: Access Violation

name: Azimer is one of the Project64 Authors / Core Members. He also created Project64's AziAudio_Legacy Audio Plugin.  See credits.

Big Endian
Name for one possible byte order, usually used here to refer to the default/standard byte order of an N64 ROM (or "ABCD")


smallest unit of digital data, usually represented by binary 0 or 1.

abbreviation: Basic Input/Output System, there is no BIOS in an N64, you have one in your PC.


Blending Mode

The process of starting an N64 game.

Boot Code
Small area of a ROM used to boot the game software, the N64 (and hence Project64) does not contain a BIOS and games must be started in this way from the cartridge. The boot code is contained within the ROM image, and the emulator must execute this code after loading the ROM in memory.

Boot Noise
random coloured pixels in the graphics buffer that can be seen during boot on older versions of the video plugin. Later versions hide this simply because it is unsightly.

Border Control
a feature of the internal pipeline of the 1.4 video plugins, prevents geometry straying outside the play area into the border (for games that have a border), hence keeping the borders clean.(In previous versions of the plugins users complained that the effect was unsightly).

8 bits.

Byte order
Low level arrangement of the data in a file, there are four possible byte orders for N64 ROMs, N64 native save files, etc.

The processing of convering a file from one byte order into another.

A file that has had a byteswap operation performed on it. A file byteswapped twice could be back to how it started.

abbreviation: Blue Screen of Death

Blue Screen of Death
common slang term for a Microsoft operating system STOP error screen, which is traditionaly white text on a blue background. Such failures indicate serious hardware, operating system or driver failures and are not recoverable (system must be hard reset).

abbreviation: Bits Per Pixel. e.g. in graphics a texture maybe be "32bpp" meaning 32 bits of data are used to descrite the colour of every pixel.

The physicial media that N64 game software is provided in - a plastic case containing a PCB on which the ROM chips and often save media are mounted.

abbreviation: Copy Buffers

abbreviation: Copy Dlist

abbreviation: Cheat Database.(Project64.Cheat File) Replaces the old CHT File

CDB  Author(s)
person or people who wrote an CDB file - in this case, PJ64LegacyTeam, if you are using the Official file included.

Central Processing Unit
hardware, computer microprocessor. Your PC CPU has probably a 32 bit Intel or AMD CPU. The N64 has a 64bit MIPS R4300i for its CPU, so this is emulated by Project64. When referring to the N64 and Project64, CPU is usually used to mean the R4k (rather than the RSP or your system CPU).

abbreviation: Counter Factor (core feature)

abbreviation: Colour Frame Buffer (also known as the Frame Buffer or Frambuffer)

The central part of an emulator, usually used here to refer to the emulation of the N64 CPU (i.e. the R4300i Recompiler or Interpreter) inside the main PJ64 application... also used to refer to the RSP recompiler or interpreter, or the centre of any major system.

Core security
term used generally to refer to measures taken to reduce risk of crashes in the core of the emulator, self. modifying code method is one of the most important factors (see ROM Settings).

Generally, a technique to speed up execution of a process, used in many places in PJ64 (ROM Browser cache, Recompiler Register Caching, plugin texture caching etc. etc. etc.)

CIC chip

Change Memory and Cache
One of the self-modifying code handling methods implemented in Project64.

Check Memory Advance
One of the self-modifying code handling methods implemented in Project64.

Check Memory and Cache
One of the self-modifying code handling methods implemented in Project64.

abbreviation: Cheat (Old Project64.Cheat File) now replaced by the CDB File

CHT  Author(s)
person or people who wrote an CHT file - in this case, Gent / PJt64team, if you are using the Official file included. 

abbrevation: Check Memory Advance

hardware, secondary CPU designed to share load and/or perform specialist tasks in a system, for example the N64's RSP is a form of co-processor, in a PC a math co-processor is built into all modern CPUs.

Copy Buffers
One of the Framebuffer emulation methods implemented in Project64.

Copy Dlist
One of the Framebuffer emulation methods implemented in Project64.

abbrevation: Cycle Redundancy Check

N64 ROMs contain two CRCs, the first is appropriately called the CRC1. Used by Project64 to identify ROMs.

The second of the two CRCs contained in an N64 ROM (see above).

Code added to a set of data calculated based on that set of data, be repeating the original algorithm you have a way to verify that no part of the set has changed since the code was calculated, without adding significantly to the overall size of the data. Used by tools such as GoodN64 to verify N64 ROMs.

Cycle Reduncancy Check
see Checksum

Controller Pak
N64 hardware accessory, device which plugs into controller. Contains 256k of RAM in 123 "pages" (accessible blocks of memory). Emulated by Project64 internally or via input plugin.

Country Code
N64 ROMs contain a two digit code used to indicate country of origin, for example "45" means USA, "50" is for Europe, etc.

Counter Factor
core timing, basically type of speed hack, adjustable via ROM Settings, default of 2 in Project64.

abbreviation: Central Processing Unit

abbreviation: Display List

abbreviation: Dynamic Link Library

Display List(s)
Raw graphics data produced by the N64 CPU and sent to the RSP for processing, and in this case the video plugin for high level emulation.

abbreviation: Direct3D

the state in which something is (deliberately) supplied - for example, a default setting in Project64 would the Geometry Transforms option being on Automatic.

In this context, the group who designed and programmed a game (e.g. as opposed to the those who released it).

Direct Sound
the audio related portion of DirectX

the 3d graphics related portion of DirectX

Direct3D HAL
Direct3D Hardware Abstraction Layer, selected as rendering device by applications to allow hardware/drivers to process 3D graphics

Direct3D T&L HAL
Direct3D Transform and Lighting HAL, alternative device available on hardware with hardware transform and lighting support, has different capabilities to standard Diredt3D HAL, intended to increase performance but largely reckoned to be obselete with faster system CPUs.

alternative name for "Folder" (Windows file system).

Directory Recursion
The process of "mining" down through levels of subfolders from a root folder to a depth in the directory tree - optional in the Project64 ROM browser.

Name of complete Microsoft API developed for higher performance multimedia applications in Windows

abbreviation: Direct Input

Direct Input
the input related portion of DirectX

software written by hardware manufactures to allow their hardware to communicate properly with operating systems. There is a specific driver for each supported combination of hardware (e.g. GeForce3) and operating system (e.g. WindowsXP). I have noticed some beginners have problems understanding the difference between drivers and plugins - although two things communicate constantly during emulation, they are quite distinct: a plugin can be considered part of an application (e.g. an emulator), a driver can be considered part of your hardware (e.g. your graphics card).

abbreviation: Direct Sound

abbreviation: DirectX


Dynamic Resolution
term we use to describe games that change their screen resolution during play. e.g. Perfect Dark, and a significant minority of games.

Dynamic Link Library
exectuable code called from another application (rather being able to run standalone), see Plugin 

abbreviation: Emulate Clear

abbreviation: External Transforms (graphics plugin)

abbreviation: Electrically Eraseable Programmable Read Only Memory

Electrically Eraseable Programmable Read Only Memory
a type of non-volatile memory used in some n64 game cartridges to save game progress.

Emulate Clear
emulation of low level framebuffer clears (video plugin option)

abbreviation: Executable

see "Application"

Expansion Pak
N64 hardware accessory, 4MB of RDRAM packaged to plug into the N64 console and enhanced/required by some games, emulated by Project64 with 8MB RDRAM size option.

abbreviation: filename extension. The 3 letters following the dot in a Windows filename.

External Transforms
Using system/DirectX/hardware to perform geometry transforms (part of 3d graphics drawing process, video plugin option).

one of the graphics microcodes, implemented in the Project64 video plugin.

one of the graphics microcodes, implemented in the Project64 video plugin.

F3DZEX 2.06H
one of the graphics microcodes, implemented in the Project64 video plugin.

F3DEXGB 2.08
one of the graphics microcodes, implemented in the Project64 video plugin.

Failed to rewrite Constant
type of error that can occur in video plugin, should be hidden from users AFAIK.

abbreviation: Force Depth Compare

abbreviation: Force Depth Enable

Force Depth Compare
a video plugin option (see video plugin, advanced tab)

Force Depth Enable
a video plugin option (see video plugin, advanced tab)

abbreviation: Frames Per Second or Fields Per Second (NOT equivalent! see explanations below).

Frames Per Second
term used to indicate graphics performance, the average number of discrete images displayed per second. N64 games can have a range of intended FPS, from as low as approx. 18FPS (e.g. Zelda) to as high as 60FPS (e.g. F-ZeroX). On a real N64 the real FPS is variable depending on the load, some games are reknowned for slowing down where there is lots of action on screen.

acharacterstic of televisions is that they are scan line interleaving - they draw all the odd numbered lines in one pass, then fill in the gaps in the next pass, then return to the first set, and so on. This gives rise to the term "field" used to denote one pass, which you can think of as half a frame.

Fields Per Second
simply, the rate of fields drawn. Fixed and depends on whether you are in a PAL (50 fields per second) or NTSC (60 fields per second) region.

Windows terminology, (only) one application or window can have "focus" at a time - the one you are currently working in, or is currently selected. Usually indicated by the title bar being a different colour to other windows.

abbreviation: Floating Point Unit. Part of a CPU, and part of the N64's CPU, hence part of Project64's core emulation. Used for fast floating point (as opposed to integer) math.

Type of (non-volatile) memory used to save data in some N64 game cartridges, autodetected and emulated by PJ64.

Memory space on N64 (area of RDRAM) used for some effects in some games, high level emulated by the PJ64 graphics plugin (advanced tab).

abbreviation: Failed to rewrite Constant

'GameShark' is the name of a hardware device sold in North America as an N64 accessory, but the system has been adopted by N64 emulators for their cheat systems and is mostly code compatible, with some exceptions. Allows the creation and application of a wide variety of codes to produces effects in games that were not intended by the game developers.

abbreviation: Graphics Binary Interface

Category/style to which a game belongs, such as Racing, Sports etc.

Mathematical definitions of a 3d graphics scene in terms of vectors and triangles... the basic construction of any 3d scene.

Geometry Transforms
Method used to process geometry information

name: Gent is one of the Project64 Authors / Core Members.  (I am not going to self praise) See credits.

abbreviation: graphics

see video plugin

Good Name
Name of a ROM given by GoodN64. Generally accepted as the correct name for a ROM for purposed of identiying specific ROMs.

Name of a software utility used to manage N64 ROM collections. Used as the basis for the Project64 RDB. Important to users as a tool to verify & identify ROMs.

Name of the serious of software utilities of which GoodN64 is one.

Windows front end (utility) for the GoodTools, recommended for all users of PJ64.

graphics binary interfact
see RSP code simulation

graphics plugin
see video plugin

graphics uCode
see RSP code simulation

abbreviation: Gameshark

abbreviation: Hardware Abstraction Layer

Hardware Abstraction Layer

abbreviation: Hard Disk (Disc?) Drive (PC mass storage device)

abbreviation: High Level Emulation

High Level Emulation
Concept; a general technique in emulation whereby an author concentrates on the results and uses whatever methods are available on the host system. Can be thought of as simulation rather that "true" emulation, or as just getting the software to run and not worrying about the hardware. Made famous (and first taken to extremes) by the 1999 N64 emulator UltraHLE. In Project64 only the graphics are high level emulated.

name: Icepir8 is one of the Project64 Authors / Core Members. He also created Project64's Icepir8s-Legacy-LLE Video,  & Icepir8sLegacyRSP Plugins.  See credits.

alternative name for "ROM file"

technique in low level emulation whereby a relatively simple step-by-step conversion process is used to emulate a particular processor... one each of Project64's two R4k and RSP cores is an interpreter, this is a slow method, but the advantage of an interpreter vs. a recompiler is that its relatively easier to debug and make more compatible.

free, spare time, unused time

abbreviation: Internet Relay Chat.

problems, flaws, defects

name: Jabo is / was one of the Project64 Authors / Core Members. He created Project64's Jabo_Direct3D6, DJabo_Direct3D8 Video,  Jabo_Dsound Audio,  Jabo_DInput Controller & RSP Plugins.  See credits.

K (nothing here)

abbrevation: Local Area Network

Larger Compiler Buffer
a Project64 core option (see configuration > ROM Settings)

abbreviation: Larger Compiler Buffer

Old or outdated hardware or software

Little Endian
Name for one possible byte order.

abbreviation: Low Level Emulation

Low Level Emulation
Concept, refers to the traditional approach to system emulation whereby you attempt to reproduce the exact output of hardware for every given input by a thorough understanding of how the original hardware works.

abbreviation: megabit

abbreviation: megabyte

one million bits of data

one million bytes of data

mixed res.
abbreviation, slang: mixed resolution. term used in reference to video plugin resolution detection and setting, some games use multiple "layers" with different resolutions e.g. MarioTennis, which only becomes obvious/important when one or more of them aren't detected properly, so the layers dont line up. Particularly common problem in PAL roms in 1.4

abbreviation: Multi-Media eXtensions, an Intel CPU technology now standard in all CPUs, used to improve performance in several parts of Project64.

Memory Pak
see "Controller Pak"

abbreviation: Memory Pak

abbreviation: Middle/Medium Level Emulation. Project64 used to contain an "MLE" RSP plugin, so called because it was a combination of Low level (audio) and High level (graphics passthrough) - hence "medium". In later versions the RSP was made configurable.

abbreviation: Microsoft

common term for Network Multiplayer, i.e. multiplayer gaming over some sort of network, be it a LAN or the Internet.

abbreviation: National Television System Committee. The TV standard used in the USA and Japan and many other places. Has 525 lines (480 active) at 60 fields per second.

Microsoft text editor included with Windows. Recommended for editing Project64 support files. Earlier versions of Notepad could only work with files up to 64kb in size.

Operation Code

abbreviation: Operation Code 

abbreviation: Phase Alternate Line. The TV standard used in most of Europe and a few other parts of the world such as Australia. Has 625 lines (576 active) at 50 fields per second.

Nintendo's abbreviation for the word "Pack", which is what they call various hardware accessories for the N64, including the Expansion Pak, the Controller Pak, the Transfer Pak and the Voice Pak.

abbreviation: Pro Action Replay

Page File
File on a hard drive used by an operating system as an extension to physical memory, to reduce physical memory requirement. Use of pagefile is generally considered a bad thing for performance reasons.

A Controller Pak has 123 "pages", a page is the smallest "block" (unit) of memory that can be reserved by a game to save game data.

abbreviation: Printed Circuit Board. Hardware, on which most electronics are built, including for example N64 Cartridges, and the parts in your PC.

Physical Memory
term used to mean real RAM in a system.

abbreviation for Geometry Pipeline, synonymous with Geometry Transforms

generally, the smallest point on a digitial display for which colour, position and depth etc can be defined.

executable code, a system component that interfaces with an application to carry out various functions, in this case vital ones such as graphics sound and input handling. allows parts to be swapped between emulators and assists users and developers. Plugins should not be confused with Drivers.

abbreviation: Project64

Pro Action Replay
PAL version of the GameShark cheat device.

Name of this emulator, chosen by Zilmar. Project64 is name of the complete package, including the application, the plugins, the support files and the documentation - it is not just the application.

Project64 Application
The main executable file included with the Project64 package - Project64.exe. This contains the GUI, CPU cores, plugin interfaces etc. and is the programme you run to start Project64.

Project64 Authors
alias Zilmar, Jabo, Smiff, Gent, Witten and RadeonUser

Project64 Plugin
Term used to refer to any of the plugins written by the Project64 team. For example, Jabo's Direct3D6 video plugin is a Project64 plugin, but N-Rage's input plugin isn't, even though it's bundled with Project64. This is no disrespect at all to other authors, it' s purely for clarity in the documentation.

Protect Memory
One of the self-modifying code handling methods implemented in Project64.

Protected Memory
see Protect Memory 

Q (nothing here)

abbreviation: R4300i

Hardware, the N64 console CPU, a customised MIPS 64bit RISC processor, low level emulated in Project64 by a choice of two CPU cores.

Rad / RadeonUser
name: Rad / RadeonUser is one of the Project64 Authors / Core Members.  See credits.

abbreviation: Random Access Memory.

Data supplied at its most basic binary level, used in reference to Project64 input plugin options.

abbreviation: ROM DataBase. Replaced by the RDS File.

RDB Author(s)
person or people who wrote an RDB file - in this case, Smiff / PJt64team, if you are using the Official file included.

abbreviation: ROM Database Information. Replaces the old RDX File.

RDI Author(s)
person or people who wrote an RDI file - in this case, PJ64LegacyTeam, if you are using the Official file included.

abbreviation: Reality Display Processor.

Reality Display Processor
Hardware, part of the N64 console system, area dealing with graphics. High level emulated in Project64.

abbreviation: ROM Database Notes, file used to store User Notes browser field

abbreviation: ROM Database Setgtings. Replaces the old RDB File

RDS Author(s)
person or people who wrote an RDS file - in this case, PJ64LegacyTeam, if you are using the Official file included.

abbreviation: ROM Database eXtension. Replaced by the RDI File

RDX Author(s)
person or people who wrote an RDX file - in this case, Smiff / PJt64team if you are using the Official file included.

Rambus DRAM. The type of memory used in the N64 console, used here to refer to the emulated memory space.

Reality Signal Processor
Hardware, part of the N64 console system, a co-processor clocked at 2/3 the speed of the CPU and used for most audio and some graphics processing, low level emulated in Project64 by the RSP plugin which has a choice of two cores.

Sophisticated type of low level CPU emulator, can give dramatically better performance vs. an Interpreter, used in Project64 for both R4k and RSP running concurrently, beyond the scope of this document to explain how a recompiler works, please consult programmers' documents if you are interested.

Reflection mapping

abbreviation: requirement(s)

abbreviation: register

memory location, usually a small amount of very fast memory used by a CPU.

register caching
Sophisticated technique to improve performance of a recompiler, available in Project64 as an option via ROM Settings.

Process of repitition, see Directory Recursion.

the part of the world (usually a continent or country) that a game was released in, usually indicated with GoodN64 standard country codes e.g. (U) (=USA), (E) (=Europe) etc.

accuracy of definition of digital information, commonly used in reference to screen resolution, but can also be used e.g. Texture resolution. Native N64 resolution is 320(width)x240(height).

abbreviation: Register Caching

Reference Rasterizer
DirectX allows Direct3D appplications to select a software mode which emulates a complete DirectX feature set (i.e. a theoretically perfect graphics card). This is very useful for developers, troubleshooting purposes, but too slow for actual gaming.

process of drawing a 3d scene with lighting, shading etc, from its component parts and description.

Rendering Device
device used to render (draw) 3d graphics on a system, a plugin option. Direct3D HAL, Direct3D T&L HAL, RGB Emulation, Reference Rasterizer are Rendering Devices.

abbreviation: Red Green Blue, applies in many aspects of computing, indicates the common order for colour definitions (all colours in light are made from mixing relative amounts of these three primary colours).

RGB emulation
a software simulation of a hardware 3d accelerator, can be used as a slow low quality alternative. video plugin option.

abbreviation: Read Only Memory, but here used as is to refer to game image files which are copies of the read only memory inside a game cartridge (they themselves are of course not literally ROM).

ROM Database
term used to refer to the file Project64.rdb, which is used to configure the emulator correctly for each individual game. Essential to the proper running of the emulator because not everything can be automatically detected with the optimal performance setting.

abbreviation: Reality Signal Processor.

RSP code simulation
term used in Project64 video plugin referring to HLE of the graphics microcodes. The word "simulation" is used because HLE by its nature is not true (low level) emulation.

one of the graphics microcodes implemented in the Project64 video plugin. See video plugin, emulation tab.

one of the graphics microcodes implemented in the Project64 video plugin. See video plugin, emulation tab.

one of the graphics microcodes implemented in the Project64 video plugin. See video plugin, emulation tab.

one of the graphics microcodes implemented in the Project64 video plugin. See video plugin, emulation tab.

one of the graphics microcodes implemented in the Project64 video plugin. See video plugin, emulation tab.

one of the graphics microcodes implemented in the Project64 video plugin. See video plugin, emulation tab.

Nintendo's name for a type of force feedback system used on the N64 console and emulated by some input plugins.

Rumble Pak
N64 accessory (hardware device), used to provide physical response in a game, a limited range of vibrations. Powered by batteries, plugs into controller. 

Intel-designed PC CPU instruction set extension (similar to MMX, more advanced)

Self-modifying Code
N64 games are often (not always) programmed in such a way as they can modify themselves during execution, allows for more sophisticated games but makes stable emulation considerably harder. Zelda is an example of a game which uses self -modifying code, wheres e.g. Mario64 does not.

"Self -mod. code method"
abbreviation: Self modifying code (handling) method

Self-modifying code handling method
Project64 has a number of techniques to cope (avoid crashing) with self modifying game code (see ROM settings)

Shell Integration
You will be familiar with this even if you haven't heard the term - all it means is that your ROM files are associated with Project64 in Windows. Project64 makes changes to your Windows registry to allow this.

abbreviation: Self -Modifying Code (Handling) Method

name: Smiff was one of the Project64 Authors / Core Members and is sorely missed by all.  See credits.

abbreviation: Static Random Access Memory

stationary, not moving, not changing.

Static Random Access Memory
type of non-volatile memory used in small amounts to save game progress in some N64 game cartridges e.g. Zelda1

Static Resolution
term we use to describe games that don't change their screen resolution during play. This is most games.

term used in the Project64 ROM Browser to indicate the overall compatibility of a particular ROM with the emulator.

in a game, a menu screen typically holding inventory etc. e.g. when you press START in Zelda, the subscreen appears.

abbreviation: Synchronisation

term used generally, to indicate the regulation of speed of one component in a system to match another component. Relevant to several areas of Project64, such as audio.


abbreviation: Translation Lookaside Buffer

Translation Lookaside Buffer
Complex part of the N64 CPU (and many CPUs generally) that must be handled by Project64. Available as an option via ROM Settings.

abbreviation: Geometry Transforms


slang, to adjust or fine tune hardware or software for better performance.

Tweak utility
slang, small software application designed to adjust settings of e.g. graphics card drivers, often settings that are normally hidden from customers/users. Usually a tweak utility can only be used on a specific card or narrow range of cards. For example, at the time of writing I use a tweak utility called RivaTuner to adjust settings on my GeForce video card.

abbreviation: Microcode ("u" is a standard abbreviation for "micro"). Literaly means "one-millionth", but here refers to microprocessor code, very low level software used in graphics and sound programming on the console and which must be handled handled (low level, or high level) by an emulator.

Universal Serial Bus
PC interface, relevant to N64 emulators as a way to attach real N64 controllers to a PC (via a suitable adapter device) or of course native PC gamepads.

abbreviation: Unhandled Opcode

Unhandled Opcode
type of (usually fatal) error that can occur in a core of an emulator, can be caused by missing features of core, bad ROM image, or incorrect ROM Settings.

abbreviation: Universal Serial Bus

a standard N64 ROM file extension

validate blending
old name for the "Change blending mode if invalid for video card" option (video plugin, emulation tab), term still used by the authors, label was only changed to make it easier for users to understand.

video plugin
plugin used to handle all graphics processes in games i.e emulate the graphics systems of the N64, usually by high level emulation. Two video plugins are included with Project64.

general process of checking that something is genuine/correct/unedited etc.

Vertical Interrupts
any system that sends data to a television should time itself precisely to the fixed cycle rate of a TV, a VI is the interrupt (command signal) which in layman's terms means "start again from the top" (TVs contain electron guns which make continual passes over the screen area, from top to bottom, left to right).

Vertical Interrupts per Second
(read Vertical Interrupts above) as a result of the cycle rate of TVs has become a part of the speed regulation of games - 60VI/s for NTSC, 50VI/s for PAL. An emulator (in one major difference vs. the original sytem) will naturally just run games as fast as it can, so this speed has to be deliberately imposed via a speed limiter (System menu) if games are to run at the speed intended by the developer.

Vertical Sync
Vertical Synchronisation, in this case the process of timing a graphics card so that it only sends each frame when (i.e. it waits until) the monitor is ready to start drawing the next frame (this is not necessary - the graphics card can updated frames at any stage during the cycle, which causes image tearing as two consecutive frames are shown at once, the top of one and the bottom of the other). A Project64 video plugin option (display tab), also system dependant. There are advantages and disadvantages to using Vertical Sync.

Vertical Interrupt

abbreviation: Vertical Interrupts per Second

abbreviation: Virtual Memory

Virtual Memory
Memory space, often as simulated on a hard disk, that emulates physical RAM, allowing an application to operate as though the computer has more memory than it actually does. Project64 allocates a large amount (gigabytes) of virtual memory and typically uses 100-200MB. Virtual Memory does not have to mean Pagefile - Project64 uses it to load ROM images, for example.

Voice Pak
one of the N64 hardware controller accessories, rarely used by games (Hey You Pikachu is one that comes to mind).


abbreviation: Vertical Sync

name: Witten is one of the Project64 Authors / Core Members. Most noted for his outstanding work on 1.5 / 1.6+.  See credits.

X (nothing here)

abbreviation: slang: Your Mileage May Vary.

One standard N64 ROM file extension, indicates Big Endian byte order.

One of the Authors / Core Members and founder of Project64, see credits.

Zilmar spec.
abbrevation, slang: Project64 Plugin Specification (Zilmar wrote the specifications).


Terms & Conditions

What's included


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